10 | Pen and Paper

The witchcraft panic had been gathering victims for months by the time George Burroughs was hanged, and many of them were still in jail. With nothing but torture and certain death awaiting them at the end of their imprisonment, many of the accused in Salem began to plot a more hopeful conclusion to their story.


  1. Mary Beth Norton, In the Devil’s Snare: The Salem Witchcraft Crisis of 1692 (New York: Vintage Books, 2002).
  2. Bernard Rosenthal ed., Records of the Salem Witch Hunt (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009).
  3. Emerson W. Baker and John G. Reid, The New England Knight: Sir William Phips, 1651 – 1695 (Buffalo, NY: University of Toronto Press, 1998).
  4. David C. Brown, “The Forfeitures at Salem, 1692,” William and Mary Quarterly 50.1 (Jan 1993), pp. 85-111.
  5. Richard Francis, Judge Sewall’s Apology: The Salem Witch Trials and the Forming of an American Conscience (New York: HarperCollins, 2015).
  6. Paul Boyer and Stephen Nissenbaum, Salem Possessed: The Social Origins of Witchcraft (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1974).
  7. Marilynne Roach, The Salem Witch Trials: A Day-by-Day Chronicle of a Community Under Siege (New York: Taylor Trade Publishing, 2004).
  8. Rick Kennedy, The First American Evangelical: A Short Life of Cotton Mather (Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdman’s 2015).
  9. Cotton Mather, Wonders of the Invisible World (Boston, [1693]), http://name.umdl.umich.edu/N00530.0001.001 
  10. Increase Mather, Cases of Conscience Concerning Evil Spirits (Boston, [1693]), http://name.umdl.umich.edu/N00531.0001.001
  11. Samuel Willard, Some miscellany observations on our present debates respecting witchcrafts (Boston, 1693), http://name.umdl.umich.edu/N00505.0001.001 
  12. David Goss, The Salem Witch Trials: A Reference Guide (Greenwood, 2008).
  13. David Goss, Daily Life during the Salem Witch Trials (Santa Barbara: Greenwood 2012).
  14. Emerson Baker, A Storm of Witchcraft: The Salem Trials and the American Experience (New York: Oxford University Press, 2015).
  15. Diane E. Foulds, Death in Salem: The Private Lives behind the 1692 Witch Hunt (Guildford, CT: Globe Pequot Press, 2010).