02 | The Outsiders

Even though Salem had been without an official charter from England for almost a decade, there was no question that witchcraft was still a crime. The only question left was how to handle them, and the answer would involve pitting a group of outsiders against a few powerful insiders.


  1. Benjamin C. Ray, “ ‘The Salem Witch Mania’: Recent Scholarship and American History Textbooks,” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 78.1 (March 2010), pp. 40–64.
  2. Marilynne Roach, The Salem Witch Trials: A Day-by-Day Chronicle of a Community Under Siege (New York: Taylor Trade Publishing, 2004).
  3. Elaine Breslaw, Tituba, Reluctant Witch of Salem: Devilish Indians and Puritan Fantasies (New York: New York University Press, 1996).
  4. Deborah L. Madsen, “Hawthorne’s Puritans: From Fact to Fiction,” Journal of American Studies 33.3 (1999), pp. 509–517.
  5. Henry F. Waters, The New England Historical and Genealogical Register Vol. 42 (Boston, MA: New-England Historic Genealogical Society, 1888).
  6. Henry F. Waters, Genealogical Gleanings in England Vol. 1 (Boston, MA: New-England Historic Genealogical Society, 1901).
  7. Edward Johnson, Wonder-Working Providence 1628–1651, ed. J. Franklin Jameson (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1910).
  8. Mark Valeri, Heavenly Merchandize: How Religion Shaped Commerce in Puritan America (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2010).
  9. Margaret B. Moore, The Salem World of Nathaniel Hawthorne (Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1998).
  10. William Sewel, The History of the Rise, Increase, and Progress, of the Christian People Called Quakers: Intermixed with Several Remarkable Occurrences (Philadelphia, PA: Samuel Keimer, 1728).
  11. John Osborne Austin, The Genealogical Dictionary of Rhode Island (Albany, NY: Joel Munsells Sons, 1887).
  12. David Goss, The Salem Witch Trials: A Reference Guide (Westport, CT: Greenwood 2008).
  13. David Goss, Daily Life during the Salem Witch Trials (Santa Barbara: Greenwood 2012).
  14. Emerson Baker, A Storm of Witchcraft: The Salem Trials and the American Experience (New York: Oxford University Press, 2015).
  15. Kai T. Erikson, Wayward Puritans: A Study in the Sociology of Deviance (New York: Allyn & Bacon, 1966).
  16. David Freeman Hawke, Everyday Life in Early America (New York: Harper & Row, 1988).
  17. Diane E. Foulds, Death in Salem: The Private Lives behind the 1692 Witch Hunt (Guildford, CT: Globe Pequot Press, 2010).